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Why did the Harappan civilization degenerate and finally collapse?

The Harappan civilization, also known as the Indus Valley Civilization, experienced a decline and eventual collapse due to a combination of factors. One significant reason was environmental changes. The region faced climatic shifts, including a decrease in monsoon rains, which led to arid conditions. This made agriculture, the backbone of the civilization, increasingly difficult to sustain.

Another contributing factor was the shifting course of rivers. The Saraswati River, a major water source for the Harappans, dried up, and the Indus River changed its course. These changes disrupted trade routes and agriculture, leading to economic decline.

Additionally, there is evidence of tectonic activity in the region, which could have caused earthquakes. Such natural disasters would have damaged infrastructure, further straining the civilization’s resources.

Social factors also played a role. As resources became scarce, there might have been internal strife and social disintegration. Urban centers, which were heavily dependent on a complex administrative system, could not be sustained in the face of these challenges.

Lastly, invasions by nomadic tribes from Central Asia, such as the Aryans, might have contributed to the downfall by further destabilizing the already weakened civilization.

The combination of environmental, economic, social, and possibly external pressures led to the degeneration and eventual collapse of the Harappan civilization.

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